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CVS Modulates Moral Judgments

Few things feel more intuitive than our sense of right and wrong. How do agency, valence, and processing levels of moral stimuli influence this sense, and are the circuits involved lateralized in one or the other cerebral hemispheres? To address these questions, I used caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) treatments followed by the Explicit Moral Judgment Test (EMJT) to probe the biological circuitry of moral judgments. Subjects’ moral evaluations were modulated by CVS treatments across agency, valence, and processing variables, providing evidence for the lateralization of newly identified moral modules concerned with positive-subtraction and self-positive processing. Continue reading


Medical Expertise

As an aspiring physician, medical expertise is something I hope to progressively develop during medical school, internship and residency, fellowship training, and eventually, clinical practice. The knowledge base upon which this expertise will be built has already begun to be established, though the process has often seemed disjointed and the information, to varying degrees, sometimes … Continue reading

Atomic Absorption Analysis of Three Dietary Supplements

Whether called alternative, traditional, natural, integrative, or complementary medicine, this largely dietary supplement-based multi-billion dollar industry is associated with claims of extreme efficacy based more on anecdote than evidence. Meanwhile, evidence is mounting that long-term vitamin supplementation may actually be harmful. We wondered whether an industry known for exaggerated claims and pseudo-scientific products was similarly sloppy with its measurements and manufacture.

We chose to take three well known multivitamin supplement brands (One Source, Now, and Equate) to task by measuring the amount of iron, zinc, magnesium, and copper in each using atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) to confirm or expose each brand’s reported values. Of the tools available, AAS was chosen because of its superior accuracy in metal analyte analysis. Continue reading

Proterometra Macrostoma Research

The furcocystocercous cercariae of the digenetic trematode, Proterometra macrostoma, possess a tail chamber into which its distome body withdraws prior to emergence from its snail intermediate host. The process of distome retraction and the conditions that trigger it in this species are not clear. The objectives of the present study were (1) to describe the retraction process in P. macrostoma; (2) to assess whether osmolality affects cercarial retraction; (3) to evaluate the effect of selected ions on retraction; and (4) to compare the swimming effectiveness of naturally (5 in vivo) retracted versus in vitro retracted cercariae. Retraction of the cercaria body into its tail chamber required only 2 min or less once initiated. Continue reading

Fruit choice as host preference indicator in Drosophila melanogaster.

Authors: Lee Ware, Krystina Sandefur, John Hargis, Adekele Eko Introduction Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most widely used model organisms in biology, including research in genetics, physiology and life history evolution (Drosophila melanogaster, 2009). D. melanogaster is a short-winged fruit fly species whose morphology is easily identifiable, once anesthetized, by its yellowish brown body … Continue reading

Body Length Frequency Distributions Among Male and Female Gammarus minus

Authors: S. Lee Ware and Krystina Sandefur   Abstract Two aspects of the Gammarus minus species were examined in this study, (1) sexual dimorphism and (2) mate choice as a function of body length (mm). Both amplexus and non-amplexus specimens in a wild population sample of Gammarus minus were measured from the base of the … Continue reading